By itself the conclusion arises that these rules can be formed only at the level of Logos, from where they are broadcast on all underlying levels and provide their coordinated functioning and that harmony which is possessed by any live organism.
Critics of the theory of Darwin claimed that casual variability is only capable to break initial integrity of an organism as harmoniously functioning system. As a result their adaptation in relation to living conditions, and decreases, chances of fixing these the arisen signs in the subsequent generations decrease.
In comparison to such idea of information structure of the world there is especially obvious a naivety of attempts of Darwin and his followers to explain an evolutionary origin of species as a result of selection of those individuals which advantages resulted from purely casual reasons.
In response to similar criticism both Darwin, and his followers usually referred to duration of terms of biological evolution which, according to their statements, is estimated in billions of years. Weakness of the similar argument can be the following bright example.
Comparing (and (we come to a conclusion that the amount of information calculated on Hartley's formula corresponds to an of uncertainty of N when obtaining the message on one of alphabet letters, on condition of equal probability of emergence of any of letters (a condition.
The available scientific data confirm possibility of changes of minor signs on condition of preservation of those main signs on which distinction of biological forms is carried out. The source of the specified restrictions is at the highest levels of hierarchical information structure inaccessible to rational science. If information models to take inorganic systems for the lower level of hierarchy, the following step of a scale of ranks should be correlated to biological systems. Over them there is the following level more difficult of organized systems. And the highest appears that level (Lagos) inaccessible to rational comprehension at which rules to which all underlying levels, that is all world available to our supervision submit.
Biosystems are difficult to assume on the structure and functions that there are all that all hierarchical levels of their structure can bring the contribution in processes of the ordered and adaptation changes of these systems.
Introduction to a formula of entropy of values of probabilities expanded a framework of applicability of this formula far beyond the molecular systems investigated by thermodynamics. The pi symbol can designate probability not these or those conditions of molecules, but also various of elements of any systems (in particular, probabilities of emergence of letters of the text or other symbols of messages).
Besides the accounting of real probabilities of letters, for reduction of redundancy of messages it is necessary to consider also probabilities of their combinations (for example, high probability of emergence of a letter Ya after the transferred TS combination, small probability of emergence of a consonant after transfer of three consonants following one after another, etc.).
1b. The entropy formula offered by Klauzius (did not open internal mechanisms of the processes leading to an entropy. This task was solved by L. Boltsman who suggested to estimate entropy of ideal gas on a formula:
Expression (1 corresponds to full entropy of system. Having divided counted on a formula (1 size on Ni, it is possible to determine the average size of entropy of N relating to one element of the considered system i.e.
1g. According to Shannon, average entropy of one letter of the text is calculated on a formula (by summation of the composed pi log pi in which the pi symbol, designated probabilities of letters. Thus:
But the same information on wings, lungs, a beak, etc. put in a genetic code regulates process of ontogenesis as a result of which in egg the organism of a baby bird, but not a whitebait is formed. Thus, information of In, superfluous for the recipient, appears a necessary structural of IS when it is about information management of processes of formation of these or those ordered structures. Thereof the condition is satisfied:
It agrees (shift of the molecules which are in each of cells does not influence size N. From this it follows that counted on a formula (size P corresponds to number of possible microconditions of system (in particular gas, at the macrocondition of system remains invariable.